the electronic valence – електронна валентність
capable of current gain – здатний до посилення струму
amplification and power gain – посилення потужності
an electron device – електронний пристрій
electronic conduction – електронна провідність
resistivity – питомий опір
to increase – збільшувати
to decrease - зменшувати
the forward direction – напрямок вперед
the reverse or back direction – зворотний напрямок
germanium – германій
mobile vacancy – мобільна вакансія
II. Read and translate the text.
A transistor is an active semiconductor device with three or more electrodes. By active we mean that the transistor is capable of current gain, voltage, amplification and power gain. A transistor is an electron device in which electronic conduction takes place within a semiconductor.
A semiconductor is an electric conductor with resistivity in the range between metals and insulators, in which the electrical charge carrier concentration increases with increasing temperature over some temperature range.
The resistivities of semiconductors and insulators decrease rapidly with rising temperatures, while those of metals increase relatively slowly. Unlike metals and insulators, the resistivity of semiconductors depends upon the direction of current flow. The direction of easiest current flow or lowest resistivity is called the forward direction, the direction of restricted current flow or highest resistivity is known as the reverse or back direction.
Semiconductors, such as the elements germanium and silicon possess two types of current carriers, namely, negative electrons and positive holes. A hole is a mobile vacancy in the electronic valence structure of a semiconductor which acts like a positive electronic charge with a positive mass.
III. Get ready to answer the following questions:1. Is a semiconductor defined as an electric conductor?
2. Do semiconductors vary greatly in appearance?
3. What is the cause of decreasing of the resistivity of semiconductors and insulators?
4. What is the forward direction?
5. What are negative electrons and positive holes?